Utblick Island av John Swedenmark

Ur arkivet

Om litteraturens förmåga att ge vad som helst oändlig mening – om de små detaljernas vikt i isländsk arbetarlitteratur

Text: John Swedenmark   Illustration: Jane Morén

Under vinjetten Utblick gör vi utflykter till litteratur om arbete och klass runtom i världen. I detta nummer ger John Swedenmark oss en inblick i detaljerna i isländsk litteratur. Texten är ursprungligen ett föredrag, framfört vid universitetet i Münster, förkortat av redaktionen för Klass.

Smådetaljer är någonting jag har rik erfarenhet av som litterär översättare. Den bok jag senast jobbade med, Änglarnas sorg av Jón Kalman Stefánsson, är en skildring av en livsfarlig brevbärartur i snöstorm på isländska västkusten, för ungefär hundra år sen.

Till skillnad från andra, mindre sparsmakade författare av historiska romaner är Jón Kalman mycket noga med att bara antyda de olika inomhus – och utomhusmiljöer som berättelsen vistas i, och just därför blir hans berättarkonst så effektivt världsskapande. Ett finrum beskrivs med omnämnandet av ett golvur vars pendel har stannats med vilje, ett tilltag som i sin tur karakteriserar det hus där stora delar av romanhandlingen försiggår och det hushållets position i det lilla, starkt klassuppdelade lokalsamhälle som kallas Orten. Urets tystnad blir talande, även om mycket få läsare medvetet lägger märke till detaljen, trots att den framhävs med emfas.

Den isländska arbetarlitteraturen präglas av att dess forntidslitteratur är direkt åtkomlig för vem som helst som kan läsa. Det beror i sin tur på att isländskan återuppstod på artonhundratalet, med den bevarade äldre litteraturen som förebild, i samband med den nationella frigörelse som tog sin början då. Dessförinnan var själva språket allvarligt hotat av det koloniala förtrycket från Danmark.

När Island blev självständigt 1944 var landet uppbyggt kring havsfiske och fiskexport. Klasskillnaderna var enorma. En liten borgarklass var i besittning av produktionsmedlen och distributionen av förnödenheter, medan det stora folkflertalet levde enkelt och i stort sett aldrig såg till några pengar.

Med denna bakgrund ska man notera nobelpristagaren Halldór Laxness och den självklara plats han ger åt klasskildringen i tidiga böcker som Salka Valka eller Sjálfstætt fólk (Fria män), och även i sextonhundratalsskildringen Islands klocka . Hans satiriska stil hindrar inte att den bild han ger av lokala orättvisor är högst riktig.

De radikala författarna med Laxness i spetsen samlade sig på trettiotalet kring bokförlaget Mál og menning som blev ett av de viktigaste under nittonhundratalet, även om arbetarlitteraturen på Island aldrig har varit stark, trots att starka spår av klassamhället givetvis lämnats i berättelser och dikter, särskilt hos radikala författare som Pétur Gunnarsson, Thórarinn Eldjárn och Einar Már Gudmundsson.

Andra isländska författare jag vill nämna i sammanhanget är Jón från Vör, Tryggvi Émilsson och Gudbergur Bergsson. De ger också detaljer som världar*, och av en händelse handlar det i alla tre fallen om kärl med innehåll: en hink med gröt, en bunke med kvarg och en burk med knappar.

1946 utgav Jón Jónson, med författarnamnet Jón från Vör på eget förlag en diktsamling på fri vers, Thorpid, som i korta scener återberättade hans uppväxt i fiskarmiljöer på nordvästra Island. Boken har blivit en klassiker och Jón fortsatte som betydande poet och folkbibliotekarie till sin död 2000.

Han beskriver miljöer där fattiga tog anställning årsvis med början under hösten eller våren och först efter ett år kunde dra vidare mot mindre eländiga villkor, ensamma eller familjevis. En hel klass av arbetskraft som i stort sett bara arbetade för husrum och livets nödtorft. I den gamla kvinnans livsbittra replik, som går ut på att döden är det enda man kan vara säker på, beskrivs detta nolläge: att alternativet till att foga sig i de usla villkor som ges är att gå under.

I denna yttersta form av begränsning blir själva begäret en överträdelse – och olyckshändelsen med en kvarglömd hink ett straff som omedelbart verkställs, eftersom det är sjökaptenens bedömning att begärets mål, gröthinken, inte lever upp till miniminormen för vad som kan förmå en kustångare att vända tillbaka till bryggan.

Hinken världar, och den värld som målas upp och präglas in lyder i stort sett under påbudet du skall ingenting begära, vilket också gör den blå färgen så intensiv och ouppnåelig, i kontrast mot omgivningens allmänna gråhet.

Hinken står till slut som ett gränsröse mot civilisationens utmarker, även på ett utvecklingspsykologiskt plan, som ett avsked till barndomen, där behoven åtminstone i princip uppfylldes.

Exemplen är oräkneliga på liknande, skoningslösa moment, där just det eftertraktade tas ifrån en person och därmed övergår till att bli ett tecken för kastrationen som sådan; det fråntagna blir det förbjudna ting som psykoanalytikern Lacan betecknar med symbolen objekt litet a, det onåbara som ligger till grund för att instifta subjektet som subjekt.

Ännu ett exempel hämtar jag från en författare som räknas bland Nordens främsta i kraft av sin stilkänsla och sin närmast förlåtande blick för det mänskliga: Gudbergur Bergsson, född 1932 och fortfarande flitig.

Han är en av de få isländska författare som förklarar sig höra till arbetarklassen, även om hans böcker skildrar alla möjliga miljöer. Men den viktigaste källan för hans världslitteratur är uppväxten i Grindavík, ett fiskeläge inte långt från där flygplatsen Keflavík nu ligger.

De två självbiografiska böckerna Far och mor och barndomens magi och Som en sten som havet putsar tillhör hans mästerverk och bygger på en egenartad förmåga att acceptera alla människor, samtidigt som han har ett medfött sinne för skönhet, och knappast kunde ha valt ett torftigare ställe att utvecklas på än denna karga och arbetsamma fiskeby.

Ett kapitel, mammas knappburk handlar helt enkelt om en samling i en vanlig ordinär grå plåtburk av alla knappar som blivit över genom åren och som för Gudbergur blir en källa till outsinlig fröjd, genom sin rikedom av former och till och med tack vare sitt ljud.

Om exemplet med gröthinken symboliserade ett slags kastration med döden som fond, är exemplet med knappburken nästan motsatsen. Det handlar om ett symboliskt övervinnande av de stränga livsvillkoren till varje pris och med uppbådande av en kaskad av romantiska fantasier med underliggande våldsinslag. Författaren Tryggvi Emilsson (1902–1993) beskrev de danska köpmännens makt där kritiken mest handlade om en socioekonomiskt definierad klass, inte en nationalitet.

Tryggvis självbiografi Fátaekt fólk (De fattiga) väckte rättmätig uppmärksamhet när den kom 1976 och följdes av två senare delar: Kampen för brödet och I Reykjavík. Första delen finns även på tyska med titeln Arm sein ist teuer, översatt av Bruno Kress 1985. Med den isländska självbiografins omständliga stil, men också en klar blick för väsentligheterna i detaljer och mänskliga karaktärer, skildrar Tryggvi ett liv fyllt av umbäranden och kamp, nedvärdering och naturskönhet, till och med vissa övernaturliga inslag.

Först genom författarens stränga urval och de affekter han eller hon lyckas lägga ner i stilen – affekter definierade som kroppsminnen av olika slag, kan en process uppkomma där detaljer får laddning och börjar världa. Men det som fastnar hos den enskilde läsaren kan bli helt överraskande för författaren. Litteratur är nämligen en till stora delar omedveten process, med flera personer inblandade.

FOTNOT:

*Världa är ett ovanligt ord, åtminstone som verb. Tanken är att det syftar på någonting som frambesvärjer en värld, därför att det spelar en central roll för den som upplever och lever i den världen. Jag använder det med inspiration från Martin Heidegger, till exempel hans skildring i uppsatsen Konstverkets ursprung av vad van Gogh berättade genom att måla av ett par skor som en jordbruksarbetare ställt ifrån sig.

Ur arkivet, nr 1-2016

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